Top Menu

Data Products Complete List

Here is the list of all science data products produced by the OOI.

16s rRNA sequence of filtered physical sample (DNASAMP)

Microbial DNA is measured as the 16s rRNA sequence of filtered physical seawater sample. The Particulate DNA Sampler filters a volume of seawater (2-micron filter) and preserves the particulate matter for genetic analysis of microbial communities after the instrument is recovered.

Air Temperature (TEMPAIR)

Air Temperature refers to the temperature of the air surrounding the sensor; this is also referred to as bulk temperature.

Air Temperature at 2 m (TEMPA2M)

Air Temperature at 2 meters refers to the temperature of the air adjusted to a standard height of 2-meters above the sea surface; this is also referred to as bulk temperature.

Barometric Pressure (BARPRES)

Barometric Pressure is a measure of the weight of the column of air above the sensor. It is also commonly referred to as atmospheric pressure.

Benthic Flow Rates (BENTHFL)

Benthic Flow Rates refer to the speed at which fluids seep from the Earth’s crust into the surrounding ocean.

Bottom Pressure (IESPRES)

Broadband Acoustic pressure waves (HYDAPBB)

Broadband Frequency (HYDFRBB)

Broadband Ground Acceleration (GRNDACC)

Broadband Ground Acceleration is the time-series seismic signal sensed by a strong motion accelerometer within the Broadband Ocean Bottom Seismometer. These seismic signals provide a characterization of seismicity/earthquake activity along tectonic plate boundaries where two key phenomena can occur: large-magnitude subduction zone earthquakes and seismicity associated with migration of melt (magma) beneath the seafloor at underwater volcanoes.

Broadband Ground Velocity (GRNDVEL)

Broadband Ground Velocity is the time-series seismic signal sensed by a Broadband Ocean Bottom Seismometer. These seismic signals provide a characterization of seismicity/earthquake activity along tectonic plate boundaries where two key phenomena can occur: large-magnitude subduction zone earthquakes and seismicity associated with migration of melt (magma) beneath the seafloor at underwater volcanoes.

CO2 Mole Fraction in Atmosphere (XCO2ATM)

CO2 Mole Fraction in Atmosphere is the measured amount of CO2 in a sample of air. Mole fraction refers to its units – how many moles of CO2 there are per million moles of air (i.e. ppm).

CO2 Mole Fraction in Surface Sea Water (XCO2SSW)

CO2 Mole Fraction in Surface Sea Water is the measured amount of CO2 in the sample of seawater. Mole fraction refers to its units – how many moles of CO2 there are per million moles of air (i.e. ppm).

Conductivity (CONDWAT)

Conductivity refers to the ability of seawater to conduct electricity. The presence of ions in the seawater, such as salt, increases the electrical conducting ability of seawater. As such, conductivity can be used as a proxy for determining the quantity of salt in a sample of seawater.

Density (DENSITY)

Density is defined as mass per unit volume and is calculated using the temperature, salinity, and pressure of a seawater sample.

Direct Covariance Flux of Heat (FLUXHOT)

Direct Covariance Flux of Heat refers to the exchange of heat between the sea surface and the overlying atmosphere associated with eddies that flow over the ocean surface. The flux of heat is estimated from Turbulent Air Temperature and Wind Velocity in three-dimensions.

Direct Covariance Flux of Moisture (FLUXWET)

Direct Covariance Flux of Momentum (FLUXMOM)

Downwelling Longwave Irradiance (LONGIRR)

Downwelling Longwave Irradiance is a measure of solar infrared energy radiating to the ocean surface.

Downwelling Shortwave Irradiance (SHRTIRR)

Downwelling Shortwave Irradiance is a measure of solar energy in the visible and near-ultraviolet wavelength spectrum radiating to the ocean surface.

Downwelling Spectral Irradiance (SPECTIR)

Downwelling Spectral Irradiance is the measure of electromagnetic radiation per unit area received (i.e. incident) by a sensor within the seawater column. Downwelling spectral irradiance is calculated from measurements made across 7 specific, pre-defined, wavebands, nominally 10 or 20 nm in width.

Echo Intensity (ECHOINT)

Echo intensity is the strength of the returned sound wave pulse transmitted by the ADCP.  Echo intensity can be used as an indicator of the amount of sediment or organisms in the water column, as well as of the quality of a velocity measurement.

Fluorometric CDOM Concentration (CDOMFLO)

Fluorometric CDOM Concentration is a measure of how much light has been re-emitted (fluoresced) from colored organic compounds found in the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in seawater. Examples of CDOM include tannins (polyphenols that bind to proteins and other large molecules) or lignins (polymers of phenolic acids) from decaying plant material and byproducts from the decomposition of animals. It accounts for the tea-like color in seawater. CDOM is not particulate, but seawater can contain both CDOM and turbidity.

Fluorometric Chlorophyll-a Concentration (CHLAFLO)

Fluorometric Chlorophyll-a Concentration is an estimate of phytoplankton biomass using fluorescence. The fluorometer emits light at a specific wavelength that is absorbed by chlorophyll and re-emitted as light at a different wavelength. By measuring the intensity of the re-emitted wavelength of light the chlorophyll-a concentration in the surrounding seawater can be estimated. Chlorophyll-a concentrations can be used as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass as it is a dominant photosynthetic pigment.

Flux of CO2 from the Ocean into the Atmosphere (CO2FLUX)

Flux of CO2 from the Ocean into the Atmosphere refers to the exchange of CO2 between the sea surface and the overlying atmosphere. CO2 Flux is estimated from the difference between measurements of the partial pressure of CO2 in the surface ocean and the overlying air. The flux is then estimated as the proportional difference of these partial pressures. The proportionality factor is parameterized using wind speed and adjusted according to sea surface temperature and salinity.

Freshwater Flux (FRSHFLX)

Freshwater Flux is the difference between the rate of freshwater entering the ocean (rainfall rate) and the rate of freshwater leaving the ocean rate of evaporation).

HD Video (HDVIDEO)

High Definition (HD) Video provides high-resolution, lossless compression video of the seafloor environment.

Horizontal Electric Fields (IES_HEF)

Hydrogen Concentration (THSPHHC)

Hydrogen Concentration is measured by the Hydrothermal Vent Fluid In-situ Chemistry sensor, and refers to the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) within a sample of hydrothermal vent fluid.

Hydrogen Sulfide Concentration (THSPHHS)

Hydrogen Sulfide Concentration is measured by the Hydrothermal Vent Fluid In-situ Chemistry sensor, and refers to the concentration of microscopic bubbles of gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in a sample of hydrothermal vent fluid.

Latent Heat Flux (LATNFLX)

Latent Heat Flux is the transfer of energy between the ocean and atmosphere as a result of evaporation or condensation (latent heat).

Low Frequency Acoustic pressure waves (HYDAPLF)

Low Frequency Acoustic Pressure Waves are time-series acoustic signals sensed by a low frequency hydrophone. These acoustic measurements are made in tandem with a seismic time series. The seismic time series contains both seafloor and waterborne seismic signals, as the acoustic measurements isolate the waterborne component leaving the pure seafloor seismic signal.

Mean Point Water Velocity (VELPTMN)

Mean Point Water Velocity refers to the velocity (speed and direction) of a single “point” of water (in this case, a volume of several square meters) averaged over time-scales associated with surface gravity waves. Water velocity is estimated using a sound pulse emitted from the sensor and measuring its Doppler Shift as it is received back by the acoustic receiver. The theory behind this measurement is that the sound pulse is reflected back to the instrument by reflecting off of particles in the water column. As the particles within the water column are assumed to move at the same velocity of the water, by measuring the velocity of the particle (via Doppler shift), one can obtain a measure of water velocity.

Mean Wind Velocity (WINDAVG)

Wind Velocity is the speed and direction of air flowing across the sea surface. Mean Wind Velocity represents the average wind speed relative to North True. Directions include Northward and Eastward vector components based on the direction the wind is moving toward (Note: this perspective is standard for oceanography but is the reverse of what is common in meteorology which describes the direction the wind is coming from, e.g. Westerly, Easterly).

Momentum Flux (Wind Stress) (MOMMFLX)

Momentum Flux (Wind Stress) refers to the transfer of energy from the wind physically pushing against the water as it blows over the ocean surface. This phenomenon is also referred to as shear stress exerted by the wind onto the ocean and can be seen manifested as ripples in the water as wind blows across the surface. The flux refers to the vertical transfer of the horizontal momentum of the wind to the ocean surface.

Multi-Frequency Acoustic Backscatter (SONBSCA)

Multi-Frequency Acoustic Backscatter is the time series acoustic signal data generated and recorded by a Coastal and Global Bio-acoustic Sonar instruments. Acoustic Backscatter provides a metric of zooplankton and fish populations in the water column surrounding the instrument. The sonar emits sound waves into the water column that bounce off organisms and are reflected back towards the sensor in a phenomenon known as “backscatter.” The more organisms or other large particles there are in a parcel of water, the higher the backscatter.

Nano-resolution Bottom Pressure (BOTPRES)

Seafloor Pressure is a measure of the force on the seafloor exerted by the weight of the overlying water column plus the weight of the atmosphere. Nano-resolution Bottom Pressure measurements are seafloor pressure measurements with very high sample rate and accuracy. This high resolution provides sufficient precision to enable the measurement of the rise and fall of the seafloor.

Net Heat Flux (HEATFLX)

Net Heat Flux is a combined estimate of the air-sea fluxes of heat, freshwater and momentum. Net Heat Flux is the net downward shortwave radiation minus heat loss due to net upward longwave radiation, latent heat flux (evaporation), sensible heat flux, and rain heat flux.

Net Longwave Irradiance (NETLIRR)

Net Longwave Irradiance is a measure of solar infrared energy radiating to the ocean surface, less any outgoing (upward) long-wave radiation from the ocean surface.

Net Shortwave Irradiance (NETSIRR)

Net Shortwave Irradiance is a measure of solar radiant energy in the visible and near-ultraviolet wavelengths less any outgoing (upward) short-wave radiation from the ocean surface.

Nitrate Concentration (NITROPT)

Nitrate Concentration is the amount of the nitrate ion (NO3-) dissolved in seawater.

Optical Absorbance Ratio at 434nm (CO2ABS1)

pCO2 of seawater is measured using a colorimetric reaction by injecting a pH-dependent indicator solution into a sample of seawater and measuring the absorbance of that mixture at two wavelengths. The ratio of absorbance between those two wavelengths is then used to calculate pCO2. Optical Absorbance Ratio at 434nm refers to the ratio of absorbance of the seawater sample with and without the pH indicator solution at a wavelength of 434 nm.

Optical Absorbance Ratio at 620nm (CO2ABS2)

pCO2 of seawater is measured using a colorimetric reaction by injecting a pH-dependent indicator solution into a sample of seawater and measuring the absorbance of that mixture at two wavelengths. The ratio of absorbance between those two wavelengths is then used to calculate pCO2. Optical Absorbance Ratio at 620nm refers to the ratio of absorbance of the seawater sample with and without the pH indicator solution at a wavelength of 620 nm.

Optical Absorbance Signal Intensity at 434nm (PH434SI)

pH is measured using a colorimetric reaction by injecting a pH-dependent indicator solution into a sample of seawater and measuring the absorbance of that mixture at two wavelengths. The ratio of absorbance between those two wavelengths is then used to calculate pH. Optical Absorbance Signal Intensity at 434nm refers to the absorbance of the seawater sample at a wavelength of 434 nm with and without the pH indicator solution.

Optical Absorbance Signal Intensity at 578nm (PH578SI)

pH is measured using a colorimetric reaction by injecting a pH-dependent indicator solution into a sample of seawater and measuring the absorbance of that mixture at two wavelengths. The ratio of absorbance between those two wavelengths is then used to calculate pH. Optical Absorbance Signal Intensity at 578 nm refers to the absorbance of the seawater sample at a wavelength of 578 nm with and without the pH indicator solution.

Optical Absorption Coefficient (OPTABSN)

Optical Absorption Coefficient is the rate at which light energy is absorbed (removed) by seawater as a function of how far it travels (e.g. with depth). The Optical Absorption Coefficient reflects the absorption coefficient for the combination of all seawater impurities including all particulate and dissolved matter of optical importance.

Optical Backscatter (Red Wavelengths) (FLUBSCT)

Optical Backscatter (Red Wavelengths) is a measure of the amount of red light (630-740 nm wavelengths) scattered in the backward direction due to suspended matter within seawater, providing a proxy for turbidity and suspended solids.

Optical Beam Attenuation Coefficient (OPTATTN)

Optical Beam Attenuation Coefficient is the rate at which light energy is absorbed and scattered by seawater as a function of how far it travels (e.g. with depth). The Optical Beam Attenuation Coefficient results from the spectral beam attenuation of the combination of all seawater impurities including all particulate and dissolved matter of optical importance.

ORP Volts (TRHPHVO)

ORP Volts refers to the Oxidation-Reduction Potential of vent fluid in units Volts. It measures the tendency of a vent fluid, and the chemical species within it, to acquire electrons (i.e. be reduced). The more positive the potential, the greater the affinity for electrons and tendency to be reduced. Used to calculate Vent Fluid Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP).

Oxygen Concentration from Fastrep DO Instrument (DOCONCF)

Oxygen Concentration from Fastrep DO Instrument is a measure of the amount of oxygen dissolved in seawater (i.e. dissolved oxygen concentration). The Fast Response (Fastrep) Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Instrument measures dissolved oxygen concentrations on shallow coastal profilers through rapid oxygen gradients.

Oxygen Concentration from Stable DO Instrument (DOCONCS)

Oxygen Concentration from Stable DO Instrument is a measure of the amount of oxygen mixed in seawater (i.e. dissolved oxygen concentration). The Stable Response Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Instrument measures dissolved oxygen concentrations on mobile assets, deep profilers, and moorings.

Partial Pressure of CO2 in Atmosphere (PCO2ATM)

Partial Pressure of CO2 in Atmosphere refers to the pressure that would be exerted by CO2 if all other gases in the atmosphere were removed. pCO2 in the air is determined optically by measuring the absorbance by CO2 in the infrared range.

Partial Pressure of CO2 in Surface Sea Water (PCO2SSW)

Partial Pressure of CO2 in Surface Sea Water refers to the pressure that would be exerted by CO2 if all other gases were removed. Partial pressure of a gas dissolved in seawater is understood as the partial pressure in air that the gas would exert in a hypothetical air volume in equilibrium with that seawater. pCO2 in surface seawater is determined optically by measuring the infrared absorbance level of CO2.

Partial Pressure of CO2 in Water (PCO2WAT)

Partial Pressure of CO2 in Water provides a measure of the amount of CO2 and HOC3 in seawater. Specifically, it refers to the pressure that would be exerted by CO2 if all other gases were removed. Partial pressure of a gas dissolved in seawater is understood as the partial pressure in air that the gas would exert in a hypothetical air volume in equilibrium with that seawater.

PCO2A Gas Stream Pressure (PRESAIR)

PCO2A Gas Stream Pressure is the pressure of the internal gas volume of the pCO2 Air-Sea instrument. This data product is used to calculate Partial Pressure of CO2 in Air and Surface Seawater.

PCO2W Thermistor Temperature (CO2THRM)

CO2W Thermistor Temperature refers to the internal instrument temperature of the pCO2 Water sensor, as measured by the thermistor (in volts). It is used to determine salinity and temperature dependent molar absorptivities in the seawater sample in order to make an accurate pCO2 in seawater estimation.

pH (PHWATER)

pH is a measurement of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. pH ranges from acidic to basic on a scale from 0 to 14 with 7 being neutral. Units: pH units

pH (THSPHPH)

Hydrothermal Vent Fluid pH is measured by the Hydrothermal Vent Fluid In-situ Chemistry sensor. pH is a measurement of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. pH ranges from acidic to basic on a scale from 0 to 14 with 7 being neutral.

Photosynthetically Active Radiation (400-700 nm) (OPTPARW)

Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) is the measure of the density of photons per unit area that are in the spectral range of light (400-700 nanometers) that primary producers use for photosynthesis.

PHSEN Thermistor Temperature (ABSTHRM)

PHSEN Thermistor Temperature refers to the internal instrument temperature of the pH sensor, as measured by the thermistor (in volts). It is used to determine salinity and temperature dependent molar absorptivities in the seawater sample in order to make an accurate pH estimation.

Physical Fluid Sample – Diffuse fluid chemistry (PHSSAMP)

Physical Fluid Samples are collected from hydrothermal vent fluids and methane seeps, preserved, recovered, and then taken to a laboratory to examine diffuse fluid chemistry. Two instruments collect Physical Fluid Samples for Diffuse Fluid Chemistry: the Osmosis-Based Water Sampler and the Hydrothermal Vent Fluid Interactive Sampler. In the case of the Osmosis-Based Water Sampler, fluids are drawn into small capillary-like tubing allowing for long-term sampling of diffuse fluids. The Hydrothermal Vent Fluid Interactive Sampler is controlled via two-way communication from the shore that allows remote triggering of sample bottles in response to volcanic or tectonic events or automatic triggering at specified intervals.

Platform Direction and Tilt (3 axes) (MOTFLUX)

Practical Salinity (PRACSAL)

Salinity is generally defined as the concentration of dissolved salt in a parcel of seawater. Practical Salinity is a more specific unitless quantity calculated from the conductivity of seawater and adjusted for temperature and pressure. It is approximately equivalent to Absolute Salinity (the mass fraction of dissolved salt in seawater) but they are not interchangeable.

Precipitation (PRECIPM)

Precipitation is the total amount of rain that falls within a specific observation period.

Pressure (Depth) (PRESWAT)

Pressure (Depth) is also commonly called Seawater Pressure. It refers to the pressure exerted on a sensor in situ by the weight of the column of seawater above it. It is calculated by subtracting one standard atmosphere from the absolute pressure at the sensor to remove the weight of the atmosphere on top of the water column. The pressure at a sensor in situ provides a metric of the depth of that sensor.

Rain Heat Flux (RAINFLX)

Rain Heat Flux is the net change in sea surface temperature due to rain falling on the ocean surface.

Rain rate (RAINRTE)

Rain Rate is the measure of how much rain has fallen over the period of an hour, i.e. how hard did it rain.

Reference Absorption (OPTAREF)

Reference Absorption is the amount of light measured by the reference detector. By dividing the Signal Absorption by the Reference Absorption the proportion of light absorbed as the light travelled to the receiver detector can be calculated. These values are part of the calculation for Optical Absorption Coefficient.

Reference Beam Attenuation (OPTCREF)

Reference Beam Attenuation is a measurement of beam intensity after propagating through a seawater sample, i.e. the amount of light that reached the receiving detector. By dividing the Signal Beam Attenuation by the Reference Beam Attenuation the proportion of light absorbed or scattered as the light travelled to the receiver detector can be calculated. These values are part of the calculation for Optical Beam Attenuation Coefficient.

Relative Humidity (RELHUMI)

Relative Humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the atmosphere to the maximum amount of water vapor the atmosphere could hold if it were saturated at that specific temperature.

Resistivity R1 (TRHPHR1)

Resistivity R1, R2, R3 – Resistivity quantifies how strongly a sample of seawater opposes the flow of electric current. The Hydrothermal Vent Fluid Temperature and Resistivity sensor uses three input voltages (1, 5, and 25 volts), to scale the output to between 0-4 Volts.  The measured resistance values are recorded as R1, R2 and R3 respectively.  The most highly-resolved, on-scale resistivity data value is used to convert from conductivity (1/Resistivity) to chloride concentration.

Resistivity R2 (TRHPHR2)

Resistivity R1, R2, R3 – Resistivity quantifies how strongly a sample of seawater opposes the flow of electric current. The Hydrothermal Vent Fluid Temperature and Resistivity sensor uses three input voltages (1, 5, and 25 volts), to scale the output to between 0-4 Volts.  The measured resistance values are recorded as R1, R2 and R3 respectively.  The most highly-resolved, on-scale resistivity data value is used to convert from conductivity (1/Resistivity) to chloride concentration.

Resistivity R3 (TRHPHR3)

Resistivity R1, R2, R3 – Resistivity quantifies how strongly a sample of seawater opposes the flow of electric current. The Hydrothermal Vent Fluid Temperature and Resistivity sensor uses three input voltages (1, 5, and 25 volts), to scale the output to between 0-4 Volts.  The measured resistance values are recorded as R1, R2 and R3 respectively.  The most highly-resolved, on-scale resistivity data value is used to convert from conductivity (1/Resistivity) to chloride concentration.

Roundtrip Acoustic Travel Time (RATT) (IESRATT)

Sea Surface Conductivity (CONDSRF)

Sea Surface Conductivity refers to the ability of seawater at the sea surface to conduct electricity. The presence of ions in the seawater, such as salt, increases the electrical conducting ability of seawater. As such, conductivity can be used as a proxy for determining the quantity of salt in a sample of seawater.

Sea Surface Salinity (SALSURF)

Salinity is generally defined as the concentration of dissolved salt in a parcel of seawater. Sea Surface Salinity, as measured on the Bulk Meteorology Instrument Packages, specifically refers to the Practical Salinity at the sea surface. Practical Salinity is a unitless quantity calculated from the conductivity of seawater and adjusted for temperature and pressure. It is approximately equivalent to Absolute Salinity (the mass fraction of dissolved salt in seawater) but they are not interchangeable.

Sea Surface Temperature (TEMPSRF)

Sea Surface Temperature is the temperature of the seawater near the ocean surface.

Seafloor High-Resolution Tilt (BOTTILT)

Seafloor High-Resolution Tilt measurements are very precise measurements of seafloor tilt, measured in micro-radians. This high resolution enables the measurement of the “tilting” of the seafloor as it deforms in response to uplifting mantle at the summit of Axial Volcano.

Associated Parameters

  • Seafloor High-Resolution Corrected Compass Direction (BOTTILT-CCMP). Seafloor High-Resolution Tilt measurements are very precise measurements of seafloor tilt, measured in micro-radians. This high resolution enables the measurement of the “tilting” of the seafloor as it deforms in response to uplifting mantle at the summit of Axial Volcano. This data product is the compass direction of the positive Y-tilt axis (in degrees clockwise from North) after corrections for calibration offsets and magnetic declination. Units: integer degrees.
  • Seafloor High-Resolution Tilt Magnitude (BOTTILT-TMAG). Seafloor High-Resolution Tilt measurements are very precise measurements of seafloor tilt, measured in micro-radians. This high resolution enables the measurement of the “tilting” of the seafloor as it deforms in response to uplifting mantle at the summit of Axial Volcano. This data product is the magnitude of the seafloor tilt since the last re-leveling of the sensor. Units: microradians
  • Seafloor High-Resolution Tilt Direction(BOTTILT-TDIR). Seafloor High-Resolution Tilt measurements are very precise measurements of seafloor tilt, measured in micro-radians. This high resolution enables the measurement of the “tilting” of the seafloor as it deforms in response to uplifting mantle at the summit of Axial Volcano. This data product is the corrected direction (in degrees clockwise from North) of the seafloor downward tilt since the last re-leveling of the sensor. Units: integer degrees.
  •  

    Seafloor Pressure (SFLPRES)

    Seafloor Pressure is a measurement of the force on the seafloor exerted by the weight of the overlying seawater column plus the weight of the atmosphere.

    Seafloor Uplift and Deflation (BOTSFLU)

    Seafloor Uplift and Deflation is a measure of the inflation and deflation (i.e., “breathing”) of the seafloor. These data are calculated using Nano-resolution Bottom Pressure.

    Associated Parameters

  • Seafloor Uplift and Deflation – Mean Seafloor Pressure (BOTSFLU-MEANPRES). Seafloor Uplift and Deflation is a measure of the inflation and deflation (i.e.- “breathing”) of the seafloor. These data are calculated using Nano-resolution Bottom Pressure. This data product is 15-second mean seafloor pressure. Units: psi.
  • Seafloor Uplift and Deflation – Mean Seafloor Depth (BOTSFLU-MEANDEPTH). Seafloor Uplift and Deflation is a measure of the inflation and deflation (i.e.- “breathing”) of the seafloor. These data are calculated using Nano-resolution Bottom Pressure. This data product is derived by conversion of the 15-second mean seafloor pressure and removal of the tidal signal predicted for the BOTPT instrument location. Units: meters.
  • Seafloor Uplift and Deflation – 5-min Rate of Depth Change (BOTSFLU-5MINRATE). Seafloor Uplift and Deflation is a measure of the inflation and deflation (i.e.- “breathing”) of the seafloor. These data are calculated using Nano-resolution Bottom Pressure. This data product is the instantaneous rate of depth change derived from the 15-sec Mean Seafloor Depth Detided using a backward-looking 5 minute reference point for the depth difference. Units: cm m-1
  • Seafloor Uplift and Deflation – 10-min Mean Seafloor Uplift Rate (BOTSFLU-10MINRATE). Seafloor Uplift and Deflation is a measure of the inflation and deflation (i.e.- “breathing”) of the seafloor. These data are calculated using Nano-resolution Bottom Pressure. This data product utilizes the 15-second Mean Seafloor Depth Detided and calculates a mean for each data point over a 10 minute backward-looking window. The rate is derived from the backward-looking depth difference between values with a 10 minute offset. Units: cm h-1
  • Seafloor Uplift and Deflation – Daily Mean Seafloor Depth (BOTSFLU-DAYDEPTH). Seafloor Uplift and Deflation is a measure of the inflation and deflation (i.e.- “breathing”) of the seafloor. These data are calculated using Nano-resolution Bottom Pressure. This data product is calculated using a 24-hour window centered on 00:00 hours GMT and applied to 15-sec Mean Seafloor Depth Detided data. It is corrected for pressure sensor drift annually- or biennially- using ROV-based field measurements. Units: meters.
  • Seafloor Uplift and Deflation – 4-Week Mean Rate of Seafloor Uplift (BOTSFLU-4WKRATE). Seafloor Uplift and Deflation is a measure of the inflation and deflation (i.e.- “breathing”) of the seafloor. These data are calculated using Nano-resolution Bottom Pressure. This data product is the mean rate of seafloor depth change as calculated by 4-week backwards-looking linear regressions. Uplift is positive. Units: cm yr-1.
  • Seafloor Uplift and Deflation – 8-Week Mean Rate of Seafloor Uplift (BOTSFLU-8WKRATE). Seafloor Uplift and Deflation is a measure of the inflation and deflation (i.e.- “breathing”) of the seafloor. These data are calculated using Nano-resolution Bottom Pressure. This data product is the mean rate of seafloor depth change as calculated by 8-week backwards-looking linear regressions. Uplift is positive. Units: cm yr-1.
  • Seafloor Uplift and Deflation – Predicted Tide (BOTSFLU-PREDTIDE). Seafloor Uplift and Deflation is a measure of the inflation and deflation (i.e.- “breathing”) of the seafloor. These data are calculated using Nano-resolution Bottom Pressure. This data product is the tide calculated at 15-second time intervals for the location of each BOTPT instrument using tide-prediction software. Units: meters.

    Sensible Heat Flux (SENSFLX)

    Sensible Heat Flux is the amount of energy transferred between the ocean and the atmosphere as a result of direct contact between the ocean and air (sensible heat).

    Short Period Ground Velocity (SGRDVEL)

    Short Period Ground Velocity is the time series seismic signal sensed by a Short-Period Ocean Bottom Seismometer. These seismic signals are measurements of vibrations from small earthquakes (0.1 Hz to 100 Hz) caused by local phenomena, such as melt movement beneath volcanoes and upward flow of hydrothermal fluids in the conduits that feed black smoker chimneys.

    Signal Absorption (OPTASIG)

    Signal Absorption is a measurement of the reflected beam intensity after having propagated through a seawater parcel, i.e. it is the amount of light that reached the detector. By dividing the Signal Absorption by the Reference Absorption the proportion of light absorbed as it travelled through the sensor can be calculated. These values are part of the calculation for Optical Absorption Coefficient.

    Signal Beam Attenuation (OPTCSIG)

    Signal Beam Attenuation is a measurement of beam intensity after propagating through a seawater sample, i.e. the amount of light that reached the receiving detector. By dividing the Signal Beam Attenuation by the Reference Beam Attenuation the proportion of light absorbed or scattered as the light travelled to the receiver detector can be calculated. These values are part of the calculation for Optical Beam Attenuation Coefficient.

    Specific Humidity (SPECHUM)

    Specific Humidity is the ratio of the mass of water vapor in air to the total mass of the air.

    Specific Humidity at 2 m (SPHUM2M)

    Specific Humidity at 2 meters is the ratio of the mass of water vapor in air to the total mass of the air adjusted to a standard height of height of 2-meters above the sea surface.

    Still Image (CAMSTIL)

    Still Images are high-resolution, lossless compression digital photographs of the seafloor.

    Suite of Dissolved Gas Measurements (10-20 individual gases) vs. Time (MASSPEC)

    Suite of Dissolved Gas Measurements (10-20 individual gases) vs. Time broadly refers to measurements taken by a Mass Spectrometer. Specifically, the Mass Spectrometer measures concentrations of dissolved gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, and hydrogen sulfide, over time that are critical to understanding volcanic, chemical, and biological processes in submarine environments.

    Temperature (TEMPWAT)

    Temperature refers to the temperature of the seawater near the sensor.

    Temperature Array in Spatial Grid (TEMPSFL)

    Temperature Array in Spatial Grid refers to temperature measurements made by 24 thermistors positioned on the Diffuse Vent Fluid 3-D Temperature Array instrument.

    Temperature from OPTAA (OPTTEMP)

    Temperature from OPTAA refers to the internal instrument temperature of the Absorption Spectrophotometer. These data are used in the calculation of the optical absorption coefficient as changes in instrument internal temperature may alter absorption properties of the seawater.

    Thermistor Temperature (TRHPHVS)

    Thermistor Temperature is measured by the Temperature-Resistivity Probe Instrument and used to calculate Vent Fluid Temperature from TRHPH.

    Thermocouple Temperature (TRHPHVC)

    Thermocouple Temperature is measured by the Temperature-Resistivity Probe Instrument and is used to calculate Vent Fluid Temperature from TRHPH.

    Turbulent Air Temperature (TMPATUR)

    Turbulent Air Temperature refers to air temperature associated with eddies that flow over the ocean surface and is used to determine vertical fluxes of heat associated with the eddies.

    Turbulent Humidity Fluctuation (MOISTUR)

    Turbulent Point Water Velocity (VELPTTU)

    Turbulent Point Water Velocity is the measurement of water velocity (speed and direction) within a 1cm3 box that can be used to derive turbulence data. Water velocity is estimated using a sound pulse emitted from the central transducer and measuring its Doppler Shift as it is received back by three acoustic receivers surrounding the central transducer. The theory behind this measurement is that the sound pulse is reflected back to the instrument by reflecting off of particles in the water column. As the particles within the water column are assumed to move at the same velocity of the water, by measuring the velocity of the particle (via Doppler shift), one can obtain a measure of water velocity.

    Turbulent Velocity Profile (VELTURB)

    Turbulent Velocity Profile is a measurement of water velocity (speed and direction) in three-dimensions over a small volume of the overlying water column. This data product is used to derive turbulence data. Units: m/s

    Velocity Profile (VELPROF)

    A Velocity Profile includes water velocity (speed & direction) throughout the depth range of an ADCP sensor. The output includes eastward and northward components of flow in earth coordinates as well as upward water velocity.

    Vent Fluid Chloride Concentration (TRHPHCC)

    Vent Fluid Chloride Concentration (Cl-) is calculated using resistivity and temperature measured by a Hydrothermal Vent Fluid Temperature and Resistivity sensor placed in a high-temperature hydrothermal vent.

    Vent Fluid Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) (TRHPHEH)

    Vent Fluid Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) is a measure of the tendency of a vent fluid, and the chemical species within it, to acquire electrons (i.e. be reduced). The more positive the potential, the greater the affinity for electrons and tendency to be reduced.

    Vent Fluid Temperature from RASFL (TEMPVNT)

    Vent Fluid Temperature is measured continuously at the sample inlet of the Hydrothermal Vent Fluid Interactive Sampler (RASFL) instrument. This data product includes temperature measurements made by resistance platinum detectors at three locations: two in a low temperature vent and one at a nearby high temperature vent. Locations of the detectors can be found in the metadata.

    Vent Fluid Temperature from THSPH (THSPHTE)

    Vent Fluid Temperature from TRHPH refers to temperature calculated from the Temperature-Resistivity Probe Instrument (TRHPH) Thermistor and Thermocouple. It is calculated using response curves from Thermocouple and Thermistor Temperature (in volts) that are adjusted to the custom instrument design and corrected by laboratory calibration.

    Vent Fluid Temperature from TRHPH (TRHPHTE)

    Vent Fluid Temperature is measured at the sample inlet of the Hydrothermal Vent Fluid In-situ Chemistry (THSPH) instrument. This data product includes temperature measurements at two locations: one in high temperature vent fluid and one in low temperature fluid near the vent. Exact locations can be found in the metadata.

    Vertically Averaged Horizontal Water Velocity (VAHWV) (IESAHWV)

    Water Column Heat Content (IESHEAT)

    Water Property Profile Time Series (IES_WPP)

    Wave Spectral Properties (WAVSTAT)

    Wave Spectral Properties are multiple parameters describing surface waves, including: wave period, height, direction, spectral properties, as well as the motion of the platform from which the measurements are made. Units: m; s; degrees; Hz; m2 Hz-1

    Wind Velocity at 10 m (WIND10M)

    Wind Velocity at 10 m is the speed and direction of air flowing across the ocean, adjusted to a standard height of 10 meters above the sea surface. This metric is also known as U10.

    Wind Velocity in 3 Dimensions (WINDTUR)