OOI Activities at 2016 AGU Meeting

OOI Town Hall

TUESDAY, December 13, 2016: 6:15 – 7:15 PM, Moscone West, Room 2008
Utilizing Online Streaming Data from the National Science Foundation’s Ocean Observatories Initiative
In January 2016, the NSF-funded Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) went operational with online streaming data freely accessible by login. Over the year, the scientific community downloaded terabytes of data every month, engaged in workshops and webinars, and submitted proposals to further utilize the OOI. Join the OOI Director, Data Manager and scientists for a discussion touching on how you can best utilize this resource. Topics include: array configuration, data access and availability, case studies of data use, proposal submission, and upcoming plans for the next calendar year.

Chat with the OOI Data Team

We are excited to share the live OOI Data Portal with visitors in the Exhibit Hall at Booth #245. Members of the OOI Data Team will be onsite and ready to answer your questions Monday through Wednesday during regular Exhibit Hall hours. Feel free to swing by! If you have a question about a specific platform, instrument, or data product, please send a note to the HelpDesk (help@oceanobservatories.org) ahead of time so we can schedule an appointment for you. Please include the topics you would like to discuss as well as a list of potential dates/times in which you are available Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday. During those days, the Exhibit Hall is open Mon. 6:00-8:00 PM, Tues. & Wed. 9:30-5:00 PM.


    THURSDAY December 15 Time: 1730 – 1745, Moscone West, Room 3009
    (OS44B-07) Circulation, Hydrography, and Transport over the Summit of Axial—the Destination Node of OOI’s Cabled Array.
    Authors: G. Xu, J.W. Lavelle
    Abstract: A numerical model of ocean flow and transport is used to extrapolate observations of currents and hydrography and infer patterns of material flux in the deep ocean around Axial Volcano—the destination node of the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI)’s Cabled Array. Using an inverse method, the model is made to approximate measured deep ocean flow around this site during a 35-day time period in 2002. The model is then used to extract month-long mean patterns and examine smaller-scale spatial and temporal variability around Axial. Like prior observations, model month-long mean currents flow anti-cyclonically (clockwise) around the volcano’s summit in toroidal form at speeds of up to 7 cm/s. The mean vertical circulation has a net effect of pumping water out of the caldera. Temperature and salinity iso-surfaces sweep upward and downward on opposite sides of the volcano with vertical excursions of up to 70 m. As a time mean, the temperature (salinity) anomaly takes the form of a cold (briny) dome above the summit. Passive tracer material released at the location of the ASHES vent field exits the caldera through its southern open end and over the western bounding wall driven by vertical flow. Once outside the caldera, the tracer circles the summit in clockwise fashion, while gradually bleeding southwestward into the ambient ocean. Another tracer release experiment using a source of 2-day duration inside and near the northern end of the caldera suggests a residence time of the fluid at that locale of 5-6 days.



All posters are in the Moscone South Poster Hall

TUESDAY December 13
Time: 0800-1220

    (C21C-0717) Air-sea interactions in the Southeast Pacific: Mooring, ship, and float observations.
    Authors: S. Ogle, W.M. Tamsitt, L.D. Talley, S.T. Gille, S.P. Bigorre
    Abstract: The atmosphere interacts with the ocean through a number of mechanisms: for example, shortwave radiation heats the surface waters, wind-driven turbulence inputs momentum to the upper ocean, and precipitation freshens the surface layer. These processes are especially challenging to measure in the Southern Ocean due to its severe winter storms. The Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) air-sea flux mooring, deployed in February 2015 at 55°S,90°W, provides the first extended time series of upper ocean measurements from the southeast Pacific. This poster focuses on heat fluxes and the effect of meteorological events on the surface ocean at the OOI mooring. The ERA-interim, OAFlux, NCEP, and the Southern Ocean State Estimate flux products are compared to data from the OOI mooring and from the December 2015 OOI deployment cruise on the R/V Palmer in the southeast Pacific. The flux products agree well with the observations. An analysis of storm events during the cruise shows that even summer storms can quickly alter the surface waters by decreasing temperature and salinity while deepening the mixed layer from under 50 m to over 100 m in less than three days.

Time: 1340 – 1800

    (S23A-2749) An Offshore Geophysical Network in the Pacific Northwest for Earthquake and Tsunami Early Warning and Hazard Research.
    Authors: W.S.D. Wilcock, D.A. Schmidt, J.E. Vidale, M. Harrington, P. Bodin, G. Cram, J.R. Delaney, F.I. Gonzalez, D.S. Kelley, R.J. LeVeque, D. Manalang, C. McGuire, E.C. Roland, J. Tilley, C.J. Vogl, M. Stoermer
    Abstract: The Cascadia subduction zone hosts catastrophic earthquakes every few hundred years. On land, there are extensive geophysical networks available to monitor the subduction zone, but since the locked portion of the plate boundary lies mostly offshore, these networks are ideally complemented by seafloor observations. Such considerations helped motivate the development of scientific cabled observatories that cross the subduction zone at two sites off Vancouver Island and one off central Oregon, but these have a limited spatial footprint along the strike of the subduction zone.

    The Pacific Northwest Seismic Network is leading a collaborative effort to implement an earthquake early warning system in the Washington and Oregon using data streams from land networks as well as the few existing offshore instruments. For subduction zone earthquakes that initiate offshore, this system will provide a warning. However, the availability of real time offshore instrumentation along the entire subduction zone would improve its reliability and accuracy, add up to 15 s to the warning time, and ensure an early warning for coastal communities near the epicenter. Furthermore, real-time networks of seafloor pressure sensors above the subduction zone would enable monitoring and contribute to accurate predictions of the incoming tsunami.

    There is also strong scientific motivation for offshore monitoring. We lack a complete knowledge of the plate convergence rate and direction. Measurements of steady deformation and observations of transient processes such as fluid pulsing, microseismic cycles, tremor and slow-slip are necessary for assessing the dimensions of the locked zone and its along-strike segmentation. Long-term monitoring will also provide baseline observations that can be used to detect and evaluate changes in the subduction environment.

    There are significant engineering challenges to be solved to ensure the system is sufficiently reliable and maintainable. It must provide continuous monitoring over its operational life in the harsh ocean environment and at least parts of the system must continue to operate following a megathrust event. These requirements for robustness must be balanced with the desire for a flexible design that can accommodate new scientific instrumentation over the life of the project.

WEDNESDAY December 14
Time: 0800-1220

    (OS31A-1992) SeaView: bringing EarthCube to the Oceanographer.
    Authors: K.I. Stocks, S.C. Diggs, R.A. Arko, D. Kinkade, A. Shepherd

    Abstract: As new instrument types are developed, and new observational programs start, that support a growing community of “dry” oceanographers, the ability to find, access, and visualize existing data of interest becomes increasingly critical. Yet ocean data, when available, is are held in multiple data facilities, in different formats, and accessible through different pathways. This creates practical problems with integrating and working across different data sets. The SeaView project is building connections between the rich data resources in five major oceanographic data facilities – BCO-DMO, CCHDO, OBIS, OOI, and R2R* – creating a federated set of thematic data collections that are organized around common characteristics (geographic location, time, expedition, program, data type, etc.) and published online in Web Accessible Folders using standard file formats such as ODV and NetCDF. The work includes not simply reformatting data, but identifying and, where possible, addressing interoperability challenges: which common identifiers for core concepts can connect data across repositories, which terms a scientist may want to search that, if added to the data repositories, will increase discoverability; the presence of duplicate data across repositories, etc.

    We will present the data collections available to date, including data from the OOI Pioneer Array region, and seek scientists’ input on the data types and formats they prefer, the tools they use to analyze and visualize data, and their specific recommendations for future data collections to support oceanographic science.

    * Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO), CLIVAR and Carbon Hydrographic Data Office (CCHDO), International Ocean Biogeographic Information System (iOBIS), Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), and Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) Program.

THURSDAY December 15
Time: 0800-1220

    (OS41B-1961) Interpretation of the Relationship between Benthic Fauna, Geologic Distributions, and Methane Seeps at Southern Hydrate Ridge, Oregon Continental Margin.
    Authors: K. Bigham, D.S. Kelley, J.R. Delaney
    Abstract: Deposits of methane sequestered along continental margins and their associated seeps are found worldwide. These seeps are of increasing interest and importance because of their potential as an energy source, their contribution to greenhouse gases, and the unique community of chemosynthetic microorganisms and fauna that they host. One of the best­studied methane seep sites is Southern Hydrate Ridge, which is at a water depth of ~800 m. It is located ~90 km west of Newport, Oregon. Despite extensive geophysical and biological research completed here, no studies have quantified the relationship of seep sites and seafloor geology to the spatial distribution and abundances of microbial and macrofaunal communities. High resolution, georeferenced photomosaics of the individual seeps and the associated biological communities at this site were collected in 2011, using the remotely operated vehicle ROPOS. Detailed analyses of these images has allowed for the quantification and characterization of the diversity and structure of the faunal community. Results show that both the distribution and abundances of seep organisms are highly variable. Further examination of these photomosaics may improve understanding of the relationships between faunal distributions and seep locations, with implications for the impacts that chemical gradients have on these ecosystems.
    (NH41A-1771) Statistical Features of Deep-ocean Tsunamis Based on 30 Years of Bottom Pressure Observations in the Northeast Pacific.
    Authors: I. Fine, R. Thomson, W.M. Chadwick, E.E. Davis, C.G. Fox
    Abstract: We have used a set of high-resolution bottom pressure recorder (BPR) time series collected at Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge beginning in 1986 to examine tsunami waves of seismological origin in the northeast Pacific. These data are a combination of autonomous, internally-recording battery-powered instruments and cabled instruments on the OOI Cabled Array. Of the total of 120 tsunami events catalogued for the coasts of Japan, Alaska, western North America and Hawaii, we found evidence for 38 events in the Axial Seamount BPR records. Many of these tsunamis were not observed along the adjacent west coast of the USA and Canada because of the much higher noise level of coastal locations and the lack of digital tide gauge data prior to 2000. We have also identified several tsunamis of apparent seismological origin that were observed at coastal stations but not at the deep ocean site. Careful analysis of these observations suggests that they were likely of meteorological origin.

    Analysis of the pressure measurements from Axial Seamount, along with BPR measurements from a nearby ODP CORK (Ocean Drilling Program Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) borehole and DART (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) locations, reveals features of deepocean tsunamis that are markedly different from features observed at coastal locations. Results also show that the energy of deep-ocean tsunamis can differ significantly among the three sets of stations despite their close spatial spacing and that this difference is strongly dependent on the direction of the incoming tsunami waves.

    These deep-ocean observations provide the most comprehensive statistics possible for tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean over the past 30 years. New insight into the distribution of tsunami amplitudes and wave energy derived from the deep-ocean sites should prove useful for long-term tsunami prediction and mitigation for coastal communities along the west coast of the USA and Canada.

    (OS41C-1970) Using the OOI Cabled Array HD Camera to Explore Geophysical and Oceanographic Problems at Axial Seamount. 
    Authors: T.J. Crone, F. Knuth, A. Marburg
    ABSTRACT: A broad array of Earth science problems can be investigated using high-definition video imagery from the seafloor, ranging from those that are geological and geophysical in nature, to those that are biological and water-column related. A high-definition video camera was installed as part of the Ocean Observatory Initiative’s core instrument suite on the Cabled Array, a real-time fiber optic data and power system that stretches from the Oregon Coast to Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. This camera runs a 14-minute pan-tilt-zoom routine 8 times per day, focusing on locations of scientific interest on and near the Mushroom vent in the ASHES hydrothermal field inside the Axial caldera. The system produces 13 GB of lossless HD video every 3 hours, and at the time of this writing it has generated 2100 recordings totaling 28.5 TB since it began streaming data into the OOI archive in August of 2015.

    Because of the large size of this dataset, downloading the entirety of the video for long timescale investigations is not practical. We are developing a set of user-side tools for downloading single frames and frame ranges from the OOI HD camera raw data archive to aid users interested in using these data for their research. We use these tools to download about one year’s worth of partial frame sets to investigate several questions regarding the hydrothermal system at ASHES, including the variability of bacterial “floc” in the water-column, and changes in high temperature fluid fluxes using optical flow techniques. We show that while these user-side tools can facilitate rudimentary scientific investigations using the HD camera data, a server-side computing environment that allows users to explore this dataset without downloading any raw video will be required for more advanced investigations to flourish.

    (OS41C-1992) Seismic and Tectonic Monitoring of the Endeavour Ridge Segment—Recent and Future Expansion of Ocean Networks Canada’s NEPTUNE Observatory on the Juan de Fuca Ridge.
    Authors: M. Heesemann, E.E. Davis, M. Scherwath, H. Kao, L.A. Coogan, G.C. Rogers, W.S.D. Wilcock
    Abstract: Ocean Networks Canada’s (ONC) NEPTUNE observatory provides real-time access to sensors on the Endeavour Ridge Segment (Endeavour)—a focus site on the Juan de Fuca Ridge System that is complementary to one on Axial Volcano that is connected through the Ocean Observatories Initiative’s (OOI) Cabled Array. While first instruments (including cameras, a short-period seismometer, and vent monitoring instruments) installed at the Main Endeavour vent field have been sending data since summer 2010, unreliable extension cables precluded continuous time-series from other nearby locations. With the successful installation of four extension cables, the summer of 2016 represents an important milestone in the instrumentation of the Endeavour Ridge Segment.

    We will present an overview of the data that are available in near real-time from Endeavour and new instrumentation that is scheduled for installation in 2017, and highlight first results derived from the new seismo-tectonic network now in operation. This network consists of three short-period seismometers (Mothra Field, Main Endeavour Field, Regional Circulation North), one broadband seismometer (western Ridge Flank), and four bottom pressure recorders (Mothra Field, Regional Circulation South, Main Endeavour Field, western Ridge Flank). The pressure recorders will provide both seismic and oceanographic data, and allow to measure differential vertical motion among the sites. We will also highlight a new technique to determine long period seafloor deformation from broadband seismometer mass-position measurements, using data from the Ridge Flank instrument as an example.

    (OS41C-1993) Waveform Template Matching and Analysis of Hydroacoustic Events from the April-May 2015 Eruption of Axial Volcano.
    Authors: M.E. Mann, D.R. Bohnenstiehl, J. Weis
    Abstract: The submarine emplacement of new lava flows during the 2015 eruption of Axial Volcano generated a series of impulsive acoustic signals that were captured by seismic and hydrophone sensors deployed as part of the Ocean Observatories Initiative cabled array network. A catalog of >37,000 explosions was created using a four-channel waveform matching routine using ~800 template arrivals. Most of the explosions are sourced from a set of lava mounds erupted along the volcano’s northern rift; however, a subset of ~400 explosions are located within the caldera and track the flow of lava from a vent near its eastern rim. The earliest explosion occurs at ~08:00 UTC on April 24, approximately four hours after the seismicity rate began to increase and two hours after bottom pressure recorders indicate the caldera floor began to subside. Between April 24 and 28 event rates are sustained at ~1000/day. The rate then decreases gradually with explosive activity ending on 21 May, coincident with the initial re-inflation of the caldera. The windowed coefficient of variation of the inter-event time is approximately 1 throughout the eruption, consistent with a random process. The size-frequency distribution shows a bimodal pattern, with the loudest explosions, having received levels up to 157 dB re 1 micro-Pa, being produced during the first few hours of the eruption.