The enhancement of chlorophyll due to phytoplankton blooms is recognized to occur near the frontal boundary of the New England Shelf, but the blooms are ephemeral and not consistently found in satellite remote sensing of ocean color. In a recent study, Oliver et al., (2021) show that enhanced surface chlorophyll concentrations at the shelfbreak are short lived events, and are associated with periods when a surface layer of lighter shelf water moves over denser slope water at the shelfbreak front. Both data and a computational model show that eastward, upwelling-favorable winds are the primary driver of the frontal restratification and localized enhanced surface chlorophyll.
The study used a variety of data sources, including MODIS satellite chlorophyll estimates, shipboard CTD casts from a Shelf-break Productivity Interdisciplinary Research Operation at the Pioneer Array (SPIROPA) cruise and a Pioneer mooring turn cruise, Pioneer glider density and chlorophyll, and atmospheric reanalysis winds after comparison with Pioneer surface mooring winds. A two-dimensional configuration of the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) coupled to a nitrogen-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model was used to simulate the wind-driven response.
The eighteen-year time-evolution of the cross-shelf distribution of surface chlorophyll concentration from MODIS showed that shelf-break chlorophyll enhancements were evident in most years, followed an inshore spring bloom in April, and were typically seen during a short period in the spring (mid-April – mid-May; Figure above). For individual years, the shelf-break chlorophyll enhancements were short-lived, typically lasting less than a week. Pioneer Array glider data were used to explore the relationship between enhanced chlorophyll concentrations and both horizontal (assumed to be associated with the shelfbreak front) and vertical density gradients. Near surface (upper 30 m) chlorophyll concentrations were collected in log-transformed density gradient bins and then displayed according to the proportion of bins with chlorophyll > 2 mg/L, indicating a bloom. The “bloom bins” were associated with high horizontal density gradients and a range of vertical density gradients, indicating that frontal restratification is associated with enhanced chlorophyll at the shelfbreak (Figure above).
The study concludes that enhanced surface chlorophyll events at the New England shelfbreak occur consistently in the spring, but are transient, lasting only a few days to a week, and thus not discernible in seasonal climatologies. Periods of enhanced chlorophyll are associated with strong horizontal density gradients and appear to be triggered by the increase in stratification resulting from wind-driven cross-shelf advection of less dense shelf water over denser slope water. This process creates a shallow mixed layer at the front which alleviates light limitation and supports transient surface enhancements of chlorophyll.
Oliver, H., Zhang, W.G., Archibald, K.M., Hirzel, A.J., Smith, W.O. Jr, Sosik, H.M., Stanley, R.H.F and D.J. McGillicuddy Jr (2022). Ephemeral surface chlorophyll enhancement at the New England shelf break driven by Ekman restratification. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 127, e2021JC017715. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017715.